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The impact of exercise on the human body

The impact of exercise on the human body

The center of education № 1883 “Butovo”

Exam paper

in the form of biological abstract

on the topic:



Alena Matveeva

1. Introduction. What is health and how to preserve it.

“Exercise needs

firmly embedded in everyday life

anyone who wants to maintain health,

performance, full

and joyful life.”


Introduction. What is health and how to preserve it.

Health is the harmonious unity of the physical, mental, social functions of man is conducive to the realization of its possibilities.

Health is the condition of the body when the function of all organs and organ systems are balanced with the environment and there are no pathogenic changes.

Human health depends on:

status of medicine – 10%

the influence of environmental factors – 20-25%

genetic factors – 20%

lifestyle, physical activity – 50%

Let’s try to answer the question of why physical activity is essential for health?

Working muscles, the muscles form a stream of pulses, constantly stimulating the metabolism, the nervous system and all organs, which improves the use of tissue oxygen, excess fat is deposited, increasing the protective properties of the organism.

Systematic training makes muscles stronger, and the body in General better adapted to the environmental conditions. Under the influence of muscular exertion increases the heart rate, the heart muscles stronger decrease, increased blood pressure. This leads to functional improvement of the system of blood supply. During muscular work increases the rate of breathing, breath deepens, intensifies the exhalation, improving the ventilation capacity of the lungs. Regular exercise will help you increase the mass of skeletal muscles, strengthening of ligaments, joints, growth and development of bones. People who do the necessary amount of physical activity, look better, mentally healthier, less prone to stress and tension, sleep better, have fewer health problems.

2.The value of physical activity to humans

in different historical periods.

Our ancestors lived in close contact, communion with nature and worked synchronously natural rhythms – get up of a morning and fell asleep with the evening dawn. The advent of projectile weapons, and later Luke, in the stone age, contributed to the need to improve physical education, movement quality, as the key to successful hunting, protection from the enemy. In the ancient Greek States had a special interest in physical education. Illiterate believed those who could not read, write and swim. There he taught fencing, gymnastics, horseback riding, swimming, running, wrestling, pugilism. It is important to note that they were created by the Olympic games. For the middle ages was characterized by military physical education. Warrior-knight should be fluent in horse riding, fencing, archery, swimming, hunting. In Russia it was popular swimming, skiing, skating, wrestling, hunting, games, where needed dexterity and hardening. In the era of Peter the 1 physical exercise were first used in Russia in the system of training of soldiers and officers. Further physical exercises are increasingly used in schools. Much of the credit for this belongs to A. V. Suvorov. In the second half of the 19th century. the sport began to develop in the shape of circles and clubs. To 1957. we have built more than 1500 stadiums, over 5 thousand playgrounds, about 7 thousand gyms, opened the stadium. V. I. Lenin at the Luzhniki stadium.

The use of means of physical culture is as relevant as ever today. This is according to the research of end of 2000:

72% of students there has been a violation of posture, 30-40% of the variance in the cardiovascular system. 50% of girls and 20% of boys are overweight. A great achievement of the science of physical education was the use of physical exercises for therapeutic purposes.

3. The impact of exercise on various organ systems.

One of the dominant traits of our time – limited physical activity of modern man. One hundred years ago, 96% of labor operations were performed due to the muscular effort. Currently 99% through a variety of mechanisms. The necessary compensation of the deficit of motor activity, otherwise it will be the disorder, disharmony complex system of the human body.

The human body consists of separate bodies performing their proper function. Distinguish between groups of organs that perform together common functions, systems of organs. From the external environment body gets all the essential for the functioning and development of the substance, however, he receives a stream of stimuli ( t, humidity, solar radiation, production of harmful effects, etc.), which seeks to violate the constancy of the internal environment ( homeostasis).

Normal human existence in these conditions is only possible if the body reacts timely to the external environment appropriate adaptive responses.

Physical exercise become a kind of regulator that provides the control of life processes and the preservation of a constant internal environment. So, physical exercise should be viewed not only as entertainment and recreation ( important!), but also as a means of preserving the health ( more importantly!).

Insufficient physical activity creates a special unnatural conditions for human life, adversely affects the structure and function of all tissues of the human body. As a consequence there is a decrease in overall the body’s defenses, increasing the risk of diseases.

The progress of science and modern technology has a higher requirement for its physical condition and increases the load on the mental, mental and emotional sphere.

Along with a reasonable combination of work and rest, normalization of sleep and food, refusal of harmful habits systematic muscular activity promotes mental, mental and emotional stability of the body.

People leading sedentary lives regularly engaged in physical exercises, can perform considerably more work than a man, leading a sedentary lifestyle. This is due to the backup capabilities of the person.

3.1. The impact of exercise on metabolism and energy.

Metabolism and energy in the human body is characterized by complex biochemical reactions. Nutrients ( proteins, fats and carbohydrates), received into the organism with food, are broken down in the digestive tract. Cleavage products are transported by blood to cells and digested them. The oxygen from the air through the lungs into the blood, takes part in the oxidation process occurring in cells.

Substances that form as a result of biochemical reactions of metabolism are excreted through the lungs, kidneys, skin.

Metabolism is the source of energy for all life processes and functions of the body. By splitting up the complex organic substances contained in them, the energy is converted into other forms of energy (bioelectric, thermal, mechanical, etc.)

Exercise or sports increase the activity of metabolic processes, trains and maintains a high level mechanisms responsible for the body metabolism and energy.

3.2. The impact of exercise on the circulatory system.

The heart is the main center of the circulatory system operating on the pump type,

thanks to the body moves the blood. As a result of physical exercise dimensions and weight of the heart increases due to the thickening of the walls of the heart muscle and increase its volume, which increases the power and performance of the heart muscle.

The blood in the human body performs the following functions:




the heat transfer.

With regular practice of physical exercises or sports:

increases the number of red blood cells and the amount of hemoglobin in them, resulting in increased oxygen capacity of blood;