The way endurance athletes
In addition to endurance, the drugs mimic the effects of exercise have a beneficial effect on the treatment of some diseases of the muscles, such as exhaustion, weakness, inability to perform physical exercise, and obesity and a number of related metabolic disorders, getting rid of them contributing to sports.
Previous studies of genetically modified mice in the laboratory, Evans showed that the constant activation of the genetic switch known as PPAR Delta (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor), turned the mice into a
tireless marathon. In addition to supervisorial modified mice did not gain weight even when they were given high-calorie food, the use of which causes obesity in the normal mice. In addition to his skinny physique, improved response to insulin, decreased levels of circulating glucose.
“We would like to know, will the drugs that activate PPAR Delta, the same effect and in person,” says Evans. “The use of genetic engineering on humans (commonly known as gene doping in the context of sports competitions), of course, possible, but very impractical”.
A study of the drug, known only as GW1516 (not commercially available), meets all the requirements of the law. Scientists are very surprised by the results of the experiment, during which the head of research Vihang A. Narkar (Vihang A. Narkar), Ph. D., for four weeks gave laboratory mice of the above-mentioned substance.
“As expected, we managed to reduce the content of fatty acids and glucose level in blood, but no, absolutely no improvement in physical training normal mice has not been received”, says Sarkar (Narkar). Not having calmed down there, he forced the mice who GW1516, every day to make monotonous 50-minute jog.
And then, the cure, the use of which has not yielded any results in mice, leading a passive lifestyle, 77% increased their endurance “sports” of mice. The number of “unwearied” or “slow-twitch” muscle fibers increased by 38%. These results are of course raised the question: why is physical activity so important?
First of all, the exercises take energy from the muscles, chemically known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When required, ATP releases its energy and form adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The increase of AMP leads to the willingness of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase AMFS (Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase), is a regulator of metabolism, acting as a gas gauge, so that the cell operates idling and increases ATP production. “It follows that the activation of the AMFS is the trigger to start working PPAR Delta”, concludes Narkar.
As a rule, AMFS can be found in the cytoplasm, the substance that surrounds the nucleus of the cell, but the results of the experiment researchers Folkskola Institute, show that some activated through exercises molecules AMFS and fall into the nucleus. There they interact with PPAR Delta and multiply its ability to “run” the genetic mechanism that, in turn, increases stamina.
“In fact, AMFS acts like a turbo-charge for PPAR Delta, which explains the importance of exercise,” according to Evans (Evans).
And then there was the experiment with the lazy. The researchers gave the physically untrained mice the drug AICAR (a synthetic analog of AMP), directly activating AMFS. After only four weeks and without any prior training, these mice began to run through 44% more than usual. “This is exactly what we achieved with the help of regular exercise,” says Sarkar (Narkar).
“Gym in a tablet” sounds equally tempting for lazy people and for Olympic athletes, but to dream about these latest tablets are not worth it. Evans has developed a test that can easily detect GW1516 and its metabolites, as well as AICAR in the blood and in the urine of man.
Source: Exercise in a pill